Some of the more common menstrual problems include:

  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) – hormonal events before a period can trigger a range of side effects in women at risk, including fluid retention, headaches, fatigue and irritability. Treatment options include exercise and dietary changes.
  • Dysmenorrhoea – or painful periods. It is thought that the uterus is prompted by certain hormones to squeeze harder than necessary to dislodge its lining. Treatment options include pain-relieving medication and a daily contraceptive pill.
  • Amenorrhoea – or absence of menstrual periods. This is considered unusual, except during pre-puberty, pregnancy, lactation and menopause. Possible causes include low or high body weight and excessive exercise.